PEACH

PEACH

 

VARIETIES

 

A. Yellow Fleshed

 

Partap:

Its fruits mature in the third week of April. Tree is medium in vigour. Fruit weight is 65-70 g, almost round, yellow with red over colour: Flesh is firm and free stone at full ripe stage. Average yield 70 kg per tree.

 

Florda Prince:

Tree is vigorous and the fruits mature in the fourth week of April. Fruit size medium (65-70 g); yellow with red blush at maturity, flesh firm and free stone at full ripe stage. Average yield 100 kg per tree.

 

Shan-i-Punjab:

Tree is vigorous with fruits maturing in the first week of May. Fruit is large, turns yellow with red blush at maturity. Average yield 70 kg per tree, flesh firm and free stone at full ripe stage

 

Earli Grande:

Tree is semi-vigorous, high yielding and fruit maturity occurs in the first week of May (4 days earlier than Shan-e-Punjab)

 

B. White Fleshed

 

Prabhat:

Tree semi-vigorous. Fruits matures in the 3rd week of April. Fruits are medium round with an attractive red blush, flesh white, juicy, sweet and free stone when fully ripe. TSS 12 per cent and acidity 0.37 percent. Average yield is 64 kg per tree.

 

Khurmani:

Tree is medium in vigour with an upright growth habit. Its fruits mature in Ist week of June. Fruit medium in size (70 g), soft-fleshed, juicy and cling stone. TSS 13% and acidity 0.4%.

 

Sharbati:

Tree is very vigorous. Fruit matures in the end of June to first week of July. Fruit medium in size (70 g), clingstone and turns greenish yellow on ripening with pink patches. Yield per tree is 100-120 kg. TSS 13% and acidity 0.33%.

 

C .Nectarine

 

Punjab Nectarine:

Tree is vigorous and spreading, fruits mature in 2nd week of May. Fruit large, fuzzless, weighing 90 g, round, attractive with 90-100% red blush over yellow ground colour at maturity, flesh yellow, firm, melting and free stone at full ripe stage. TSS is 11.5% and acidity is 0.8%. Average yield is about 40 kg/plant.

 

SOIL AND CLIMATE
Availability of chilling temperature up to 300 hours during winter months is enough to break the dormancy of low chilling cultivars. After fruit setting from March to June, the climate is warm to hot (35o-42oC). This is favourable for the development and maturity of fruits provided adequate water supply is available Loamy sand or sandy loam, well drained, fertile soil with lime content less than 10% and pH between 6-8 is good for peach is suitable for peach cultivation.

 

PLANTING MATERIAL
One year old budded plants are used as planting material.

 

PLANTING SEASON
One year old healthy nursery plants should be planted  from the end of December to end January.

 

SPACING
Plant to plant distance is kept at 6.5 x 6.5m in square system of planting. Always procure 1.0-1.2 m tall plants for planting an orchard.

 

MANURES AND FERTILIZERS

Age (Years)

Dose per tree (g)

Farm yard manure (kg)

Urea (46%N)

Superphosphate single (16% P2O5)

Muriate of potash (60% K2O)

1-2

10-15

180-360

190-380

150-300

3-4

20-25

540-1000

570-760

450-830

5 & above

25

1000

760

830

 

Apply FYM, superphosphate and potash in December. Split urea in two. Apply half of urea in January after pruning and the remaining second half after fruit set in March.

Iron deficiency

 

This can be corrected by spraying peach trees with 0.3 per cent ferrous sulphate solution (3g ferrous sulphate in one litre of water) on spring flush in April, on summer flush in June and late summer flush in August-September.

 

IRRIGATION

Fruit development period starts after fruit set in March and continues during April to June till maturity depending upon the variety. This is the critical period of irrigation for the trees. Trees should not suffer from any moisture stress particularly 25-30 days before maturity of fruit, because the maximum weight gain is during these days. irrigation should be given during the first 3-4 weeks after fruit set at weekly intervals. Thereafter, from the second week of April to the start of harvesting, the trees may be irrigated at 3-4 days interval.

 

TRAINING AND PRUNING
Modified leader system of training is adopted for getting higher yield. In peach, fruit is borne on one year old branches. About 40 per cent of one year old branches should be thinned out during January.

 

PLANT PROTECTION

 

Pests

Fruit Fly:
Spray Malathion 50 EC at the rate of 2 ml/lit of water. Set up Methyl Eugenol 1 % trap with Malathion 50 EC 2 ml/lit between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m. Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml Dichlorvos in cotton. A total of 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + Dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

 

Peach Leaf Curl Aphid:

Spray 800 ml Rogor 30EC (dimethoate) in 500 litres of water immediately after the fruit set. Repeat the spray after 15 days, if necessary.

 

 

 

 

 

Peach Black Aphid:

Spray 800 ml Malathion 50EC in 500 litres of water on the colonies on the stem and limbs as soon as the pest congregates on these parts.

 

Chaffer and other defoliating Beetles:

Spray in the evening 1 kg Hexavin 50WP (carbaryl) in 500 litres of water

 

Peach Fruit fly:

Plant early maturing cultivars i.e. Prabhat, Partap, Florda Prince, Earli Grande, Flordasun and Shan-e-Punjab.

2.Spray 1250 ml Sumicidin 20 EC (fenvalerate) in 500 litre of water in mid May and repeat after one week if required depending upon the variety.

 

DISEASES

Shot Hole:

Spray with Captan, Ziram or Thiram (0.2%) at leaf fall or bud swelling stage.

 

Brown Rot:

Spray the tree with captan @0.2% (200g in 100 liters of water)about 3 weeks before harvesting the fruits