Chilli

Varieties 

Punjab Sindhuri (2013 , Punjab Tej (2013), Punjab Surkh (1995), Punjab Guchhedar (1995)

 

Hybrids 
CH-3 (2002), CH-1 (1992)

 

Variety/Hybrids About Variety/Hybrids About Fruits About Yield
Punjab Sindhuri (2013) Plants are dark green, compact and medium tall. It is an early maturing variety and first picking (red fruits) is possible 75 days after transplanting. Fruits are long (7.14cm), thick skinned, dark green when immature and deep red when mature. Fruits are pungent (1% capsaicin content) and rich in Vitamin C content (155 mg/100g). Average yield of red ripe fruits is 76 q/acre.
Punjab Tej (2013) Plants are light green, spreading and medium tall. It is an early maturing variety and first picking (red fruits) is possible after 75 days of transplanting Fruits are long (6.80 cm), thin skinned, light green when immature and deep red when mature. Fruits are highly pungent (1.32% capsaicin content) and rich in Vitamin C (115 mg/100g). Average yield of red ripe fruits is 56 q/acre.
Punjab Surkh (1995) Plants are medium tall, leaves dark green, fruits long (7cm), green when immature and dark red on maturity. It is a dual purpose variety which makes it suitable for salad and drying. It is tolerant to fruit rot and moderately resistant to mosaic virus. Fruits have capsaicin content of 0.80% on dry weight basis. It is an early bearing variety which yields 80 q/acre of red ripe fruits.
Punjab Guchhedar (1995) It is a selection from material introduced from Indonesia. Plants are tall. Fruits are small (5cm), erect and borne in clusters of 5-16. Fruits have destalking habit which leave the stalk while picking. It is tolerant to fruit rot, highly resistant to mosaic and tolerant to leaf curl virus. Fruits are rich in capsaicin (0.98%) and deep red in colour Fruits are late bearing and yield 60 q/acre.
CH-3 (2002) This hybrid has been developed by crossing MS- 12 x S-2530. It is an early maturing hybrid with dark green foliage and pendent fruits. The fruits are long (8.2 cm). The colour of immature fruit is dark green and turns dark red at maturity. The fruits are mild in pungency with 0.51% capsaicin content, high dry matter (22.5%) and good Vit. ‘C’ (109.95 mg /100g ) content. The deep red coloured fruits make it specially suitable for making chilli paste for export purposes. The average yield of red ripe fruits is 110 q/acre
CH-1 (1992) It is a hybrid between MS12 x LLS. Its plants gain one metre height and more branching. Plants continue bearing fruits for a long time. Fruits are light green when immature and attain deep red colour at maturity. Fruits are of medium size (6.62 cm long) and weigh 2.7 g each. This hybrid is tolerant to viral and fungal diseases. Its fruits are highly suitable for drying and used as salad. Its fruits are used in processing industry. Fruits on an average have capsaicin content of 0.80%. Yield of red ripe chilli is 100 q/acre.

 

Soil

well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter with pH range 5.0 to 8.0 is best suited for its cultivation. It can not withstand water-logged conditions for more than a day.

 

Climate

A frost free period of about 130-150 days with temperature range of 15-350 C is optimum for chilli production. Temperature beyond 40 C result in poor fruit set and increased fruit drop

 

Sowing Time : The seed is sown in nursery during end October to mid November. Transplanting is generally done in February – March.

 

Seed rate Seed rate is 200 g per acre when sown in the nursery. Sow nursery in one marla (25m2 ) area to transplant one acre.

Seed treatment 

Treat the seed before sowing with 2g. of Thiram per kg of seedto avoid seed borne diseases

 

Protected nursery

Time of sowing under polyhouse: Third week of November- Mid February

Time of transplanting :Ist week of February – End of April

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Spacing   : Planting should  be doneon ridges at 75 cm apart with plant to plant spacing of 45 cm

*In case of mechanized farming the wider spacing can also be done to facilitate weed control by the protected application of non selective herbicides between the rows.

Irrigation

Furrow Irrigation:

First irrigation should be given just after transplanting. Subsequent irrigations should be given at 7-10 days intervals. Total number of irrigations required are 15-16. For saving of irrigation water, irrigate the crop in alternate furrow without affecting the crop productivity. With the use of paddy straw mulch @ 25 quintals per acre, the number of irrigations can be reduced to 9.

Drip Irrigation:

Drip irrigation in chilli results not only increase in yield but also save 46% of water as compared to conventional method of irrigation. Under this system irrigation should be applied at an interval of two days. While irrigating with drip irrigation, transplant two rows of chilli on 80cm wide bed with row to row distance of 60cm and plant to plant distance of 45cm. Provide 40cm space between the two beds. The chilli crop should be irrigated with one lateral pipe per bed having drippers spaced at 30cm and discharge of 2.2 litres per hour as per the following schedule:

Month   

Time of irrigation (min)

March

31

April

61

May

137

June

110

July

60

August

60

 

Fertigation

  • It saves 20% fertilizer.
  • Apply 7.9 kg Urea, 3.2 kg Mono Ammonium Phosphate and 3.2 kg Muriate of Potash (white) per acre during first month of the transplanted crop in seven equal doses with every second irrigation (four days interval).
  • The remaining amount of fertilizer 31.4 kg of Urea, 12.8 kg of Mono Ammonium Phosphate and 12.8 kg of Muriate of Potash (white) per acre should be applied in equal doses during the rest of crop season in 21 equal doses with every second irrigation.

Manures and Fertilizers :

 

Varieties: FYM (10-15 tonnes/acre), urea:super:potash   55:75:20 kg/ acre All P2 O5 and K2 O together with one-half of urea should be drilled at transplanting and the remaining urea should be top dressed after first picking

Hybrids: Apply 65 kg urea per acre to hybrid chilli.

 

Growth regulators 

Due to high temperature in May-June dropping of flowers take place. Two foliar sprays of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 10 day interval @4g, 45 and 55 days after transplanting to increases the green and red ripe fruit yield of chilli.

 

Harvesting : For dry powder chilli should be allowed to turn red. Six or seven pickings will be required. More pickings are possible for harvesting of green chillies. Dry the red ripe chillies in the sunshine.

 

Plant protection

 

Pests Thrips, mites, aphids and whitefly are the serious pests of these crops. For their control, spray the crop with 400 ml of Malathion 50 EC in 100-125 litres of water at 15-20 days interval.

Diseases

 

Die-back and fruit rot
Spray the crop with 750g of Indofil M-45 or Blitox in 250 litres of water/acre at 10 days interval. Givt first spray at thinterval starting from noticing the die-back symptoms.

 

Chilli mosaic. and leaf curl

Recommendations given for aphids and white fly respectively may be adopted for controlling the vector.

 chilli04

Chilli mosaic

Harvest
Harvesting can be done about 3months after transplanting. Pick the fruits when they are fully developed but still green and shining.